A computer is an electronic device that accepts data and process it into a meaningful information for the user. When a computer is mentioned to us in a classroom or work places, we assume that the laptop or the desktop computer is the whole thing called computer but that’s not it. Some electronic devices make up a computer because without them, the computer is incomplete.


A computer system consists of the hardware and software components.  When we talk about a basic computer system, then we mean the devices or electronic equipments that enables a computer to power up or to function. Here is a list of all the basic computer system;

HARDWARE : A hardware is the physical equipments such as the case, storage, drives, keyboard, monitors, cables, speakers and printers that can be seen, touched and moved.

SOFTWARE : A software is a set of rules and instructions the computer follow in order to function or work properly. Examples of softwares includes;

Aplication software ; Application softwares are designed to perform a task, and provide entertainment for end user softwares.

Systems software ; A systems software is a software that runs on a computer hardware.


The basic input and output systems are made up of the input and output devices. Here is how the computer works through the Bios.

THE INPUT SYSTEM: The input devices send data or raw facts into the computer. Devices such as the keyboard, the mouse and the joystick etc, do the inputing.

THE PROCESSING SYSTEM: The computed receives the data the input device sends, which pass through to processing stage where  the processor such as Intel,Amd etc. Processes the data into information.

THE OUTPUT SYSTEM : The output devices such as the monitor, displays the information that has being processed by the processor. This information is meaningful to the user when displayed.


A memory is a storage area that stores data the computer needs. The main memory can also be termed as the ROM (Random access memory where  the computer needs memory to carry out its functions. There are several types of memory.

RAM: Ram also known as the Random, Access  Memory stores data temporary and it is volatile  which means once the computer is shut down accidentally from a power outage, the data on the RAM will be lost when the computer is turned back on.

ROM: ROM also known as the Read only memory. Once the computer is starting, the read only memory contains instructions for the computer to use.


The CPU or the central processing unit which is also known as the computer brain carries or executes rapid program instructions.


The processor retrieves the instructions from the memory. The instructions are decoded and the processor finds out what the instructions is about. Afterwards, the instructions are executed  and the program is performed. This process goes on and on. Some basic operation the CPU executes  are the arithmetic operations.


Hard disk is a secondary storage device that stores data permanently as compared to the main memory (ROM). We wonder how a harddrive can store so much of data and the information in such s small space. The platters of the harddrive contains tiny bits of magnetic grains. Data is written unto the disk through electrical current. There are two types of harddisk, namely;Hard disk drive and Solid state drive.


The operating system is a software that manages the computer memory and processes. It also manages the software and hardware. The operating system is the computers translator because it translates the 0s and 1s to a readable information. The operating system is very important and without it, the computer cannot operate. The numerous program  running simultaneously accessed your computers central processing unit, memory and storage.


When the computer is turned on,  the computer loads data from the (ROM)  and performs a power -on-self-test(POST) which checks that all the components are functioning as intended. The computer loads the Basic input/output system(BIOS)  from the ROM. The computer leads the operating system from the harddrive into the systems RAM. When an application is opened, it is loaded into the Ram. After the application is loaded, any files that are opened for us in that application are loaded into RAM.

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